Borneo - Operation Oboe July - August 1945 (World War 2, 16 April 1945 to 15 August 1945)

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About This Campaign

Borneo - Operation Oboe July - August 1945

Borneo. Source: Australia in the War of 1939-1945, Series 1 (Army), Vol VII, p. 453.

 Map of Borneo. Source: Australia in the War of 1939-1945, Series 1 (Army), Vol. VII, p. 453.

 

The Borneo Campaign, code-named OBOE, consisted of three operations; the taking of Tarakan, Labuan Island and Balikpapan. The “brainchild” of General Douglas MacArthur, in command of the South-West Pacific Area, later evaluations of OBOE attributed to the three operations none of the advantages that MacArthur had claimed.[1]

Instead it has been suggested that the Australian government’s determination to take Borneo, against the express recommendations of General Blamey, was not merely to accede to MacArthur’s wish. Wheate and Gilbert have contended that the government’s decision may have been influence by the perception that Borneo was an opportunity for Australia “to confirm its place at the table during later peace talks” by helping to defeat the Japanese.[2]

At Tarakan, OBOE ONE was ostensibly aimed at the airfields that were of strategic interest. Nevertheless, there is little evidence they would have been able to prepare the airfields in time for operations at Brunei and Balikpapan and, in the end, the airfields were beyond repair.[3] Australian losses were also considerable. While 1,540 Japanese were killed, 245 Australians were killed and 669 wounded.[4]

At Labuan Island in Brunei Bay, the objective of OBOE SIX was resource-driven; to establish an advanced fleet base that could protect oil and rubber reserves in the bay.[5] However, this would have little effect in the way of diminishing Japanese oil resources as they were already blocked by Allied operations, particularly the relentless and very effective US submarine campaign, to the north, which also greatly hampered Japanese re-supply by this late stage in the war.[6] Australian casualties numbered 114 killed, 221 wounded with an estimated 1400 Japanese killed.[7]

OBOE TWO, aimed at the capture of Borneo from Balikpapan was the final large-scale Allied operation of the war, and the largest amphibious assault ever mounted by Australian forces. Balikpapan had the advantage of “oil reserves, two suitable airfields, and a deep sheltered harbour.”[8]

However the Australian Commander-in-Chief, Thomas A. Blamey, considered the operation to be “strategically unsound.”[9] While the operation was successful, arguably due in no small part to the significant air and naval support, 229 Australians lost their lives with a further 634 wounded.



[1] Coates, John, “Borneo,” in The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press, 2008, 98.
[2] Wheate, Nial and Gilbert, Gregory, “Borneo, 1945 – An Amphibious Success Story,” Royal Australian Navy, viewed 04/04/2016, http://www.navy.gov.au/history/feature-histories/borneo-1945-amphibious-success-story.
[3] Coates, John, “Borneo,”98; 100.
[4] Ibid, 100.
[5] Ibid, 101.
[6] Ibid, 98.
[7] Ibid, 102
[8] Wheate, Nial and Gilbert, Gregory, “Borneo, 1945 – An Amphibious Success Story.”
[9] Coates, “Borneo,” 98.

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Names

Showing 8 people of interest from campaign

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GOODEN, Oswald Davy

Service number SX9377
Captain
2nd/48th Infantry Battalion
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 4 Nov 1915

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MACKEY, John Bernard

Service number NX20317
Corporal
2nd/3rd Pioneer Battalion
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 16 May 1922

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MARTIN, John William

Service number NX25394
Private
22nd Australian Infantry Brigade
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 11 Jan 1918

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BELL, Alfred William Paul

Service number VX79445
Lance Corporal
2nd/5th Cavalry (Commando) Regiment
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 12 Apr 1914

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BUTLER, Vivian James

Service number QX26122
Private
2nd/9th Infantry Battalion
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 4 Aug 1920

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JOHNSON, Charles Thomas

Service number QX2851
Private
2nd/32nd Infantry Battalion
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 30 Jan 1918

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ALLSOPP, Raymond Jesse

Service number NX104023
Captain
2nd/5th Independent Company
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 25 Jun 1915

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GRANT, Geoffrey William

Service number N450247
Trooper
2nd/11th Commando Squadron
2nd AIF WW 2
Born 27 Dec 1924