About This Unit
Howitzer Brigades were added to the establishment of Divisional Artillery for the Western Front. Field guns like the 18 pounder just did not have the destructive power needed to defeat well prepared defensive positions such as German blockhouses and concrete dugouts. Something biggerr was needed.
A Howitzer Battery was originally raised for each Field Artillery Brigade but in respect of artillery, concentration is the name of the game and it was realised more were required so the Howitzer Brigades comprising 12 x 4.5 inch howitzers were raised; 21 through 25, the second digit indicating the Division to which it was assigned.
A howitzer is a relatively short barelled gun that fires a comparatively heavy shell at moderate velocity on a high trajectory causing the shells to fall steeply or 'lob' into the enemy positions. When the shell is fitted with a delay fuze, the projectile will detonate sub-surface which is the desired effect to destroy trenches dugouts and the like.
For a more general description of artillery units and formations, see the entries for Field Artillery Brigades and Divisional Artillery. (www.rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au)
At the outbreak of the War, Australian Artillery was in short supply in both quantitative and qualitative terms. The standard 'fire unit' of artillery is a Battery comprising variously four to six guns described as light medium or heavy depending on the equipment, calibre and weight of shell. The standard field gun was the British 18 pounder (so-called because of the weight of the high explosive shell).
When the AIF embarked, its artillery was light-on indeed. As it turned out the scope to use it at Gallipoli was extremely constrained anyway so it mattered less than had the AIF gone straight to Europe, where artillery was the definitive feature of the battlefield.
The standard organisation of Field Artillery took on the form of the Field Artillery Brigade which were formed to support infantry divisions. In 1914 and 1915 the First and Second Division each had three brigades (initially corresponding to the Brigade numeric designation) equipped with 12 x 18 pounder field guns. On arrival in France, the artillery was reorganised with each field artillery brigade having 12 x 18 pounders and 4 x 4.5 inch howitzers. There was initially a lack of howitzers available to meet the establishment.
In March 1916 a fourth battery of four 18 pounder field guns was added. At the same time a Howitzer Brigade was raised for each division with 12 x 4.5 inch howitzers each.
The 22nd was thus equipped. It became the Howitzer Brigade under command of the 2nd Division Artillery.
They were short lived though. Because of supply constaints in respect of the guns, and other considerations, the Howitzer Brigades were broken up and the batteries distributed among the Field Artillery Brigades of each Division in early 1917 as had been originally intended. The 22nd's batteries were distributed across the 4th 5th and 6th Field Artillery Brigades.
Steve Larkins Nov 2014
Battle/ Campaign/ Involvement
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