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  • W_O_Jose_by_Shreyas_Khanna.pdf
  • Wesley_Choat_by_Lily_Farrell.pdf
  • William_Faint_by_Ryan_Schwarz.pdf
  • William_Harold_Simcock_by_Charli_Medlow.pdf
  • Research_Checklist_WW1.pdf
  • Research_Checklist_WWII.pdf
  • A further example of Nimmo’s courage was on 28 June 1915 when leading his troops towards Turkish positions. During the advance one of Nimmo’s sergeants indicated to him that there were Turkish soldiers firing at other Australian troops to the north of their position. Nimmo, appreciating that the Turkish soldiers were exposed from their position in relation to his, quietly collected a dozen men, explained the situation to them and issued quick orders, then gave the signal to rise and fire five rounds of rapid fire. The Turkish soldiers became confused and quickly took cover before fighting back. The situation soon developed into a skirmish with artillery shells and firing from an Australian warship, affecting the progress of Nimmo’s men. But Nimmo’s leadership steadied his men and again, his courage under fire was noted.
  • George Mitchell .. the culminating point ‘Backs to the Wall!’ Backs to hell, and old ‘Nick’ reaching out with his pitchfork. We could not hear our own rifles above the din, only knew by the recoil that we had fired. I could feel the sidelong glances from the men, and the unspoken thought, ‘How are you going to get us out of this mess?’ ‘Poor blighters, my job is to keep you here till you are done for, not get you out.’ On three sides, they closed in, only the way to company headquarters was open. Suddenly a runner dived in and I read the message, ‘Retire immediately.’ Down the bank once more and out on the lower plain, futile bullets pecked the ground as I trudged. What did it matter? Only a question of today, tomorrow, or the next day! To my delighted eyes, there stretched a well-sited, newly dug trench lined with capable looking Australians. Eager questions assailed me ‘Where is he, when is he coming?’ ‘Massing over the hill’ I replied, ‘here in about twenty minutes.’ ‘We’ve got him now, we’ve got him!’ Sorted out my platoon and led them to the extreme left where there was a gap. A roar of small-arm fire came from the right, a 13th brigade battalion, the 49th, swept forward into the gap. We watched as they swung along with irresistible momentum, the ranks thinned as they went, here and there groups shot and stabbed. Ahead of them ran field grey figures, the gap is closed by good Australian bayonets! No further attack came from Fritz. Down came their gunfire on us, the worst I ever experienced. Big shells punched the rocking earth with appalling fury, smoke rolled in clouds, had a bad attack of wind-up, and the taste of death was in my mouth. If I live through this, I thought as I lay in a heap, I will never be any good anymore. Ten shells a second, I calculated, landed on our hundred yards of front. Slowly the fire died away, the 2nd Division came up and relieved us, we assembled our weary few and marched back." George Mitchell, MC, DCM, "Backs to the Wall", 1937
  • RAAF History - 17 September David Lascelles Against all the colourful and emotive language in use today, this lovely piece of understatement is from a different era. I suggest it also speaks quiet volumes for the solid reliability of the dear old LANCASTER. Enjoy. D 17 September 1944, No 463 Squadron Lancaster JO-T departed RAF Waddington for a bombing sortie again Bologne, France. The following is extracted from the pilot’s post-operation report. "On our bombing run, immediately after "Bombs Gone" we were hit by heavy flak, causing a hole in our port wing approximately 11ft; X 6ft; and the ailerons severely damaged. Aircraft went out of control in a diving turn; during this time No.3 tank blew out, and exploded behind aircraft. I ordered crew to abandon aircraft and moderate control of aircraft was maintained at 4,000 ft; during which time Wireless Operator, Mid Upper and Rear Gunners endeavoured to get out of rear door. This was jammed and the handle broke off, so had to come to the front hatch which partly jammed adding further difficulties for crew trying to bale out. Eventually all members of crew apart from Pilot squeezed themselves out. During this time reasonable controlled descent was maintained with port engines fully opened; starboard engines half throttled; full aileron and rudder bias. It is estimated crew got out at 2,000 to 3,000 ft; and at 1,500 ft; I made an effort to bale out, unsuccessfully as the aircraft dived and was uncontrollable. I regained control of the aircraft at 800 ft; and having no alternative, had to make a forced landing in the quickest possible time. Landing eventually effected in a field that was obstructed with anti-invasion posts, with my starboard engine on fire; undercarriage and flaps serviceable and operated allowing me to make a successful landing. At the end of the landing run, to avoid further damage, swung aircraft to port, coming to rest in a wood. Made a quick get away as starboard outer wing and engine were on fire. Throughout these extremely difficult circumstances my crew behaved in an exemplary manner and showed calm and coolness throughout." Navigator (F/Sgt. Dent) states: "Our pilot's captaincy and leadership displayed throughout those intense moments gave us confidence and inspiration. We considered aircraft impossible to fly, and how he effected a landing was, in the opinion of all of us, a miracle, and we never expected after we left that the aircraft would be landed". Comment: So ‘ moderate control’ resulted from half of the left wing shot away, the right wing in shreds, a right side engine on fire, control surfaces severely damaged, fuel tanks blown away and the Lancaster falling out of the sky!!
  • RAN HMAS Perth HMAS Nizam HMAS Stuart AIF-7th Australian Division 17th Brigade' (2nd/3rd, 2nd/5th Battalions, 2nd/2nd Pioneer Battalion) (Detached from 6th Division) 21st Brigade (2nd/14th, 2nd/16th, 2nd/27th Battalions) 25th Brigade (2nd/25th, 2nd/31st, 2nd/33rd Battalions) 6th Cavalry Regiment 9th Cavalry Regiment 2nd/4th Field Regiment 2nd/5th Field Regiment 2nd/6th Field Regiment 2nd/9th Field Regiment 2nd/1st Anti-Tank Regiment (1 troop) 2nd/2nd Anti-Tank Regiment 2nd/3rd Machine-Gun Battalion 2nd/5th Field Company 2nd/6th Field Company 2nd/9th Field Company RAAF No.3 Squadron (Fighters - P40 Tomahawks)
  • This officer has completed 68 sorties and has displayed great courage and determination. During a sortie in January, 1943, Flying Officer Cowper was compelled to make a forced landing behind the enemy’s lines but he displayed great resource in outwitting the enemy and regained our own lines on foot. One night in July, 1943, he engaged a Junkers 88 and caused it to explode. The enemy aircraft disintegrated and a large portion struck and so disabled Flying Officer Cowper’s aircraft that he – was forced to leave it by parachute. He was later rescued from the sea and rejoined his squadron to resume operational flying. Since then, Flying Officer Cowper has destroyed another Junkers 88.
  • see No. 42 Sqn unit page Catalina serial number A24-100 and code number RK-L of 42 Squadron, RAAF, piloted by 401846 Pilot Officer (PO) (later Flying Officer (FO)) Clifford Dent Hull of Hawthorn, Vic. After completing a successful mine laying operation off Macassar (Celebes) Harbour on the night of 23 & 24 October 1944, the starboard engine of this aircraft was damaged by Japanese anti aircraft (AA) fire. Unable to maintain height on his return and with the second engine failing, PO Hull made a forced landing in the open sea south of the South Western Celebes Peninsula. He and his crew spent the next twelve hours on the water uncomfortably close to four Japanese airfields based in Southern Celebes, before a second Catalina (left), OX-U of 43 Squadron, RAAF, arrived to rescue PO Hull and his crew. A rubber dingy is visible transferring the downed crew to the rescue aircraft. A United States B24 Liberator bomber located the downed Catalina and guided the rescue Catalina in. The B24 continued to circle overhead providing protection. After the disabled Catalina had been sunk by machine gun fire, the rescue Catalina took off and returned safely to Darwin. This operation was one of the epic sea rescues of the Second World War, entailing a round trip of 1800 miles mainly through Japanese held territory. The rescue crew were: 415632 FO (later Flight Lieutenant (Flt Lt, DFC)), Armand Andre Etienne (Captain), of West Perth, WA; 408409 FO (later Flt Lt), Ian McCallister Robson of Sandy Bay, Tas; 428809 Flight Sergeant (Flt Sgt) (later Warrant Officer (WO)), John Joseph Sweeney (Navigator), of Newcastle, NSW, (visible standing on the wing of the rescue aircraft); 428832 Flt Sgt (later WO), Raymond Victor Tumeth of Haberfield, NSW; 428360 Flt Sgt (later WO), Derek Fanshawe Robertson of Camberwell, Vic; 12912 Sergeant (Sgt) (later PO), Robert Richard Tingman of Brighton, Vic; 12223 Sgt (later Flt Sgt), Albert Leslie Warton of Sydney, NSW; A2398 Sgt, Thomas Roy Elphick of Bondi, NSW; 33642 Corporal, James Francis Burgess Oliver of Glen Innes of NSW.
  • From Flight Sergeant Norman MacDonald, only survivor of JB472 The crew of Lancaster JB472 with Reginald Wicks as pilot, joined the Squadron on 23 November 1943. They flew their first mission on 23 November - a night raid on Berlin. This was closely followed by another night mission to Berlin on 26 November. On 2 December JB472 took off from Warboys airfield for their third raid on Berlin. In a report given by Flight Sergeant Norman Macdonald after the war he describes what happened to their aircraft as they flew over eastern Germany: 'Attack by enemy fighter reported by rear gunner - pilot acknowledged, took evasive action and just then we were hit. Crew put on chutes, aircraft in steep dive. At approx between 17 and 15, 000 feet violent explosion. I was sucked out the starboard side of aircraft. Regained consciousness at approx 4,000 feet opened 'chute landed ok. I believe pilot jettisoned bombs endeavouring to save crew and aircraft but aircraft crashed 20 miles north of Hannover. The next day I was captured in the goods yard of the village railway station by 2 German soldiers who were searching for me and taken to identify wreckage of aircraft from which German officials had removed the bodies of my 6 colleagues. Taken to Frankfurt for interrogation put into solitary confinement then to Stalag IVB.'
  • Warrant Officer Bell is a an efficient and most resolute pilot. He has taken part in may harassing attacks on the enemy and has invariably displayed a high degree of gallantry. He has destroyed four enemy aircraft. London Gazette 17 November 1944
  • Lt S.E. MILLS, D Company, 32nd Bn, 22 January 1917: 'He was in my platoon and was wounded pretty severely on night of 19/20 July. With the help of two other men we carried him to a place of comparative safety and dressed his wound. This was 200 yards behind the German first line and it was found impossible to get stretcher bearers through the barrage. When the order to retire was given it was a matter of charging through the two lines of Germans and so impossible to carry two badly wounded men. Green was left with some twenty or thirty others some of whom have since been reported as prisoners. It is my opinion that Green died of his wound although he was alive when I saw him last.'
  • Translation of German message, 2 October 1919, 'Iden: Disc handed over by Intell: Off: with 6th Army H.Q. through Central Office for Deceased Estates 12/10/16[,] Austral: Pte. A.E.N. Burney, 1226, 2nd Btn. fell in the neighbourhood of Fromelles on 19/7/16'.
  • 'On 23rd April the 53rd Battery position at MORCHIES was subjected to very heavy shelling, and a large ammunition dump caught fire. it was burning fiercely when Bombardier EDWARDS, at great personal risk, assisted in extinguishing the flames, and helped to save a considerable amount of ammunition.' Source: 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 189 Date: 8 November 1917 'On 23rd April the 53rd Battery position at Morchies was subjected to very heavy shelling and a large ammunition dump caught fire. It was burning fiercely when Corporal Edwards at a great personal risk, assisted in extinguishing the flames and helped to save a considerable amount of ammunition. Thus winning the Military Medal.' Details from his Mother.
  • Originally listed as 'No Known Grave' and commemorated at V.C. Corner (Panel No 11), Australian Cemetery, Fromelles; subsequently (2011) identified, and interred in the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery, France. Note on Form B103: 'Identification Disc received from Germany. No particulars were afforded except that the soldier is dead. to be reported KILLED IN ACTION FRANCE 19-20th July 16.' Note on file: 'austr. Sold. Russell, A. 54. A.K. Nr. 4299. am 19.7.16. in Gegend Fromelles gefallen.' Note on Red Cross File 2380411: 'Identity disc recd. From Germany and despatched to Next of Kin ... 1.9.1919.' Statement, 3123 Sergeant F. POLDING, 54th Bn (patient, 9th General Hospital, Rouen), 9 November 1916: 'During the attack on Fleurbaix on the 19th July, we had very heavy losses. Many dead bodies were collected after the action and buried. I was informed by several men of the burying party that Russell's body was recovered and buried. I do not, however, remember the name of any particular man of the burying party who told me this.' 'The above name appeared on German death list dated 4-11-16.' Second statement, 4375 Pte E. SCOBLE, 54th Bn (patient, 2nd Birmingham War Hospital, Hollymoor, England), 18 February 1917: 'Arthur Russell's brother William Russell, 2300 54. A.I.F. told him Arthur Russell was killed and buried by Sgt. Allen.'
  • Statement, 2878 Corporal E.E. POULTER, B Company, 60th Bn, 29 January 1917: 'The last time I saw him was in No Man's Land about 150 yds. from our line. He was shot through the side and the bullet evidently lodged in his stomach as he doubled up and fell. We could not hold the ground. We went over with 1100 men and 63 men answered the roll call.'
  • Red Cross File No 2940705 has statements 4226 Pte L. HANNA, B Company, 54th Bn (former prisoner of war), 30 December 1918: 'On morning of 20th July 1916 at Fleurbaix I was alongside him when he was shot dead by sniper. Hit in Head (eye). We were then in Enemy's second line trench. They got in behind us into their 1st line and we were cut off. I was hit through helmet by same man immediately after but not hurt. We were taken Prisoners of War about 1 hour later. His body would be left in trench. I did not know his Christian name.' 3511A W.D. CARR, 54th Bn, 24 December 1918: 'In the morning between 8 and 9 o'clock I saw him assisting [1909 H.W.] Bilbow with a machine gun - when he was shot through the right eye either by sniper or machine gun bullet - not shrapnel, as he was killed instantly. It was in a quickly dug trench. We were captured shortly afterwards, so I know nothing as to his burial.' 1909 Lance Corporal W.H. BILLOW (sic), 13 January 1919: 'He was not killed going over the trenches but after he got over in the Germans' second line on the morning of the 20th. I was standing shoulder to shoulder with him up to the moment he was killed. He was hot by a sniper from behind, the bullet passing through his head. He had been working all night with me, trying to build up the trenches. It happened at Fleurbaix ... I took his paybook and his identification disc and was forced to give them up to the Germans with my own paybook.' 1841 S. TONKINS, 54th Bn, 28 August 1917: 'Pte Wildman was killed by shrapnel, I saw him lying dead on the ground in the German trenches, on July 20th at Armentieres.'
  • Red Cross File No 1420704 Statements from witnesses: 2818 J. ELLIOTT, 56th Bn, 6 November 1916: 'He came from Bathurst, N.S. Wales, and was buried in a cemetery between Sailly and Estairs, Bac-St.-Maur Road. I saw his grave there.' (this seems incongruous given his remains were recovered from the Pheasant Wood site) 3330 Pte P.G. HUGHES (patient, 23rd General Hospital, Etaples), 6 November 1916: 'James was killed by shell: I did not see it happen but I saw him lying afterwards. I think he was buried at the top of Pinney's Avenue in the cemetery.' 2780 Lance Corporal B.H. PHILLIPS, 56th Bn, '[2705 C.W.] Johnston was a L.M. Gunner and James was in A. Company. We made an attack on the 19th and were driven back to our own lines, and these two and three others were killed by the same shell in our trench. James' head was practically blown off. I - a stretcher bearer - was on the next bay and was called in. James and Johnston were both taken out and buried in a Cemetery behind the lines. I think the cemetery at the mouth of "V.C. Avenue" near Fleurbaix. I knew Johnston very well indeed, but James not so well.' 1704 Pte G.W. MURRAY, 56th Bn (patient, 9th General Hospital, Rouen), 16 November 1916: 'I saw this man killed by a piece of shell hitting him on the head on the 20th July near Fromelles. I heard afterwards that he was buried.' Originally listed as 'No Known Grave' and commemorated at V.C. Corner Australian Cemetery, Fromelles; subsequently (2010) identified, and interred in the Fromelles (Pheasant Wood) Military Cemetery, France.
  • From Sydney's diary, his Battalion relieved the 19th Batttalion on Thursday 21 March but he gave no indication of location. Referral to the War Diaries of the 7th Brigade held by the Australian War Memorial indicate they were in camp at Canteen Corner and moved into the line near the villages of Romarin and Kortepyp just inside the Belgian border with France. The entry for Tuesday 26 March, their 2nd in the front line, stated it was 'very lively. Fritz shooting bombs nearly all night. Had to fall back for a while'. On Saturday 30 March Sydney recorded 'Fritz's plane bought by gunfire fell about 300 years from my dugout. Officer taken prisoner'. Sydney then tell that he 'went out with patrol. Spent several hours in no mans land. Very wet and got into swamp on the bank of the River Lys. No sign of Fritz so came in again. Wet through and mud up to knees'. On Tuesday 2 April Sydney recorded it was their 12th day in the line and that the Battalion was relieved by the South Lancashires from the Somme. Following the diary entries, the 26th Battalion spent the night in a camp and on Wednesday 3 April moved to Meteren en route for the Somme. On Thursday 4 April they left Meteren for Caestre 'to load gear on trains working all night'. Sydney records 'it was very wet and slushy'. They left Caestre at 6 am on Friday 5 April arriving in Amiens at 8 pm. Then then marched to Allonville where the spent the night. The next day they marched to La Neuville which Sydney described as 'a small village, left in a hurry by the population as everything was left behind, even cows and a few tame rabbits in out billet'. On Sunday 7 April the Battalion marched to Baizieux to spend some days in support. Sydney states there were 'no billets and have to put up this time in the trench and there are no places to shelter anyway'. On Thursday 11 April Sydney recorded that '3 Hun planes brought down by gun fire. Had no time to go over and see as we were ready to move up the line'. Friday 12 April was the Battalions 'first night in the front line about 4 miles from Albert. Very quiet. Heavy bombardment on our left but nothing our way'. On Friday 19 April Sydney recorded that they were at Franvillers having 'moved back a couple of miles for a couple of days spell. Living in holes in the side of a hill. Light fall of snow during the day. Very cold'. He comments on the 'terrible scarcity for matches' and then on Monday 22 April says he 'heard there were matches at Heilly about 3 miles away. Walked over and managed to get 4 boxes. Going up in line tonight on fatigue'. Wednesday 24 April saw them back in the front line from 11 pm. On 26 April they 'bombarded Fritz's trench with mortars. Knocked out his machine guns'. they were relieved from the front line on Monday 29 April, went into support for a day and then were 'marched out for a couple of days spell'. They were back in reserve on Saturday 4 May and 'had to dig bivies to camp for the night. Dug into bank alongside a railway. 9.2 gun on line shaking hell out of us'. On Friday 10 May Sydney and his mates left for the line arriving 4 pm and went into reserves. Again they had to build bivies, this time in the trench. Sydney records that they went into reserves near Ribemont and 'met my old friend the Queensland mosquito'. He also comments 'I think all the vermin in the world is around this part, not including Huns'. Compiled by Ian Cousens
  • From the 7th Brigade diaries, the 26th Battalion were back in line at Frenchcourt on 14/15 June. When an inspection was carried out at Frenchcourt on 20 June the Battalion consisted of 40 officers and 867 other ranks. They were described as being very smart. Returning to Sydney's dairy, he recorded on Thursday 27 June that they 'took over line at Villers-Bretonneux. D Company in reserve for 10 days living in dugout. Trey Bon'. It was Friday 12 July before they were 'sent out of the line for a rest'. He must have been back in the line on Wednesday 17 July as he noted that the 'Brits hopped over, took Fritz's line, went about 1500 yards and that 'D Coy had 40 odd casualties, 3 killed'. Saturday 20 July was the 4th Brigade Sports and Sydney noted that he 'met half Toowoomba' and names eight people. That was the last entry Sydney made in his diary. Compiled by Ian Cousens
  • Sydney's diary entries cease on 20 July. From the War Diaries of the 7th Brigade held by the Australian War Memorial, the 26th Battalion was in reserve at Glisy and Blangy from 1 August before moving up into the line on 7 August. On 8 August the Battle of Amiens commenced with an attack launched at 4.20 am. The 26th Battalion, working with a section of tanks, was on the right flank and were to advance along the north side of the railway line towards Marcelcave. Objectives ironically included Card Copse where Sydney was initially buried. Reports state there was heavy fog and visibility was restricted to 10 yards for about 2 hours. A large number of casualties were due to men being caught in their own rolling barrage. From reports in the Australian Red Cross Society Wounded and Missing Enquiry Bureau Files, Sydney was in D Coy and died instantaneously after being hit by pieces of a shell. Pte H Webley 6167 of B Coy 26th Battalion stated 'Casualty happened in the morning of 8-8-18 just after the hop over when still in action'. Pte Webley was wounded by the same shell. Sydney was initially buried on the 9th August in Card Copse British Cemetery one mile North West of Marcelcave before being re-interred in Villers-Bretonneux Military Cemetery on 31st March 1920. Sydney is also commemorated on the Mothers Memorial in East Creek Park and the Soldiers Memorial Hall, both in Toowoomba. Sydney's younger brother, Stanley Clifford Cousens #816 15th Battalion also served in WW1 and was killed in action on 9th August 1916 two years earlier at Pozieres. Compiled by Ian Cousens
  • On the evening of 14th July 1944, with the D Day invasion in full swing, a massive air effort was being mounted to disrupt German transport links. Having taken off from Binbrock (Lincolnshire-UK) on July 14, 1944, around 9:38 pm, for a bombing mission on the Révigny-sur-Ornain (Meuse) railroad, Lancaster ME755 AR-Z was shot down by a night fighter on the 15th. July 1944 around 02:05, near Chevillon Haute Marne in eastern France.. Only two crew members managed to escape: F / Sgt Brian Francis RAFTERY, Wireless Operator, RAAF, Sgt David WADE, AIr Gunner, of the RAF. The rest died in the crash and are buried at Chevillon Communal Cemetery. ALLAN, ALEXANDER, Sergeant, 562335, RAFVR, Flight Engineer, DICKERSON, KEVIN LESLIE THOMAS, Flight Sergeant, 421578, RAAF, Age 20, Bomb Aimer JEFFRIES, FREDERICK, Flight Sergeant, 1323904, RAFVR, Age 33, Navigator KILSBY, HORACE SIDNEY, Sergeant, 1575038, RAFVR, Age 21, Air Gunner VAUGHAN, WILLIAM ALAN HENRY, Pilot Officer, 421774, RAAF, Age 25, Pilot
  • 'On 4th October, 1917, during the operations on BROODSEINDE RIDGE east of YPRES. The attack commenced at 6am October 4, 1917 after rain commenced falling the day before. Coincidentally, the Germans planned an attack for exactly the same time. At 5.20am the German artillery opened up and then at 6am the Australian artillery started, both in preparation for impending attacks. After both troops emerged from their trenches to commence attacking to their surprise they found the enemy doing exactly the same. The Australians managed to recover from the shock quicker than their opponents as the Australian machine gunners opened up and cut the German lines to pieces. The Germans broke and the Australians managed to capture the ridge. The triumph at Broodseinde presented the Allied High Command with an opportunity, perhaps in the upcoming spring, of breaking the German hold. Source: 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 31 Date: 7 March 1918
  • Ventura AE937 took off from RAF Methwold at 07:35 hours on 13 June 1943 to carry out a raid on the viaduct at St Brieuc, France. Twelve aircraft from the Squadron took part in the raid and AE937 failed to return. The Squadron aircraft were accompanied by five Squadrons of fighters. Low level was maintained by the formation to a point of climb when seven-tenths cloud caused the mission to be abandoned. A few minutes before five separate attacks were made from the rear on the second box resulting in AE937 being shot down. Another aircraft was badly shot up with both gunners being wounded. One other machine with a burst tyre crashed on landing but there were no injuries. All the other Squadron returned safely. Crew: RAAF 405357 WO N A P Kane-Maguire, Captain (Pilot) RAF Flt Sgt J Lawson, (Navigator) RAF Flt Sgt E W Goodheart, (Wireless Air Gunner) RAAF 412004 Flt Sgt A J Galley, (Air Gunner)
  • Writing to his mother from the Ninth Training Battalion, Fovant, Wiltshire, early in February, Corporal Carl Klaus says : — I have had a pretty rough time of did not get a crack. I have been it the last 15 months in France, but turned over a lew times with concussion, but got over it alright. I've seen some rotten sights. Poor old Jack Morgan was Killed at Messines. I suppose you have heard all about that. Our Battalion was right in the thick of it. The first time I ever handled a dead man was at Messines -— I had to help a couple of other chaps to dig George Weatherstone and Jack Morgan out. The dugout was blown in on top of them. And again at Ypres poor old Harry Mallam was killed right alongside of me. I had to lift him out of the line and bury him in a shell hole, as it was too far to take him back to a cemetery. Just took his pay book and private belongings and gave them in to our platoon officer. I suppose you read about the battle of Passchendaele. We were the ring-leaders of that turnout. With the assistance of the Canadians we took the hill about a kilometre from Passchendaele, and the Canadians hopped in and took the town, so now we have nearly all the high ground in Belgium in our hands, and have Fritz in the hollow and chopping hell out of him. Have more artillery behind us now than ever they had before on the western front. In this stunt Bill Eliem was killed and Percy Fisher was wounded. I have met Paddy Lulham, Bert Daley, Stan Tyler from Wardell, and all the old lads of 1st-41st that went away to the Ninth Battalion. They were all doing well until the Ypres stunt, when Jim McDonald from Broadwater was killed, Paddy wounded, Tyler wounded, while Fitzpatrick lost his eye and is going home, and of course Don Livingstone is home long ago. Bert Daley, is still going strong, and looks splendid. I saw him a couple of days before I left France. I am likely to be in England for a six months spell from shell fire anyway, but I suppose there will be plenty work attached to it just the same. Still it will do me. They told me when I left France that they were giving me six months in this Training Battalion at Fovant. I have met Clarrie Fredericks, he is in the 8th of the 41st, and soon will be going over to France. He is training to be a signaller. I also had tho pleasure of meeting another old mate that I went to school with under Mr. Bath, that was Tom Grant from Woodburn. He is a corporal in the 25th Battalion, has been wounded twice, and now they have sent him over to the training battalion for a few months. He is in the 10th, but he is not far away from us. Writing to his brother Rupert, Corporal Klaus says : — I see where the girls are getting married. I don t know how I am going to get on when I go back, there will be none left for me, and I don't like the idea of picking one up here in England to take back like some of them are doing. Well, old Fritz could not get me with his old scrap iron, so instead of giving me fourteen days furlough in London they have sent me here to the 9th Training Battalion for six months. I have seen some rough work over there, not only in the fighting, but rotten weather conditions. Last winter was bitterly cold. All the rivers were frozen up; boats could not work at all, and in some places in Belgium I have seen a foot of snow, and had to carry on through it all backwards and forwards to the trenches, but of course we were only holding the line at that time at Armentieres. We were there about four months, and then we shifted down lower to a place called La Pisset, and from there to Messines. I suppose you have read about the battle of Messines. We were holding the line at Messines right up till the morning of the hop-over. Our brigade was not really in the hop-over, but to my idea we had worse, because we had to do all the carrying parties (after the 9th and 10th Brigades took their objectives) under heavy shell fire all the time — day and night. From there we went down to Ypres in October, and the 11th Brigade was in the battle of Passchendaele. I was right in the thick of it. That is where poor old Bill Eilem (brother of Tom of the Bee-Hive) was killed, and Harry Mallam from Bungawalbin. We had a good possy made, well sand-bagged, and were waiting for the Tommies to relieve us the night after the push, but old Fiitz must have taken a tumble that there was a relief on, and barraged hell out of us for about two hours — Harry Mallam, Ben Hall and another chap I don't know were killed outright by a shell which lobbed right on the parados of the trench. I don't know how I escaped, for I was not above two yards from them, but I was round a bend of the trench. I think what saved me was the ground being soft and the shell, did not scatter much. The three chaps that were killed were huddled up together taking shelter. When Jack Morgan and George Weatherstone were buried at Messines we had to dig them out, for the dugout was blown in on top of them. Jack did not have a mark on the outside of his body, but the concussion killed him. Weatherstone hailed from the Clarence, but we were mates from the time we left Brisbane. He was smashed to pieces.
  • For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during operations against enemy positions south of the SOMME east of HAMEL on 8th August, 1918. Corporal SEE, with his section, stormed a strong point in ACCROCHE WOOD and succeeded in killing four and capturing 16 of the enemy. He led his section close to the barrage and on reaching RAT WOOD cooperated in the capture of a battery of 4.2's which had been firing point blank, killing a gunner and capturing 7 others. With his section he captured altogether 27 prisoners. Throughout Corporal SEE displayed courage, energy, determination and leadership, and greatly inspired his men.' Source: 'Commonwealth Gazette' No. 61
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8211537
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3445699
  • https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au/research/resource-library/letter-from-lone-pine
  • https://nominal-rolls.dva.gov.au/veteran?id=1040023&c=WW2#R
  • http://www.625squadron.org/associnfo/about.pdf
  • https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/awm-media/collection/RCDIG1067906/document/5484782.PDF
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4265644
  • http://aircrewremembered.com/coleman-gerald.html
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=8037128
  • https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au/research/home-page-archives/the-first-conscription-referendum
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4427798
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAS_Australia_(D84)
  • https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au/research/home-page-archives/harold-carseldine
  • http://www.samemory.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=61&c=5123
  • http://www.2nd2ndpioneerbattalion.com/historyFRAMESET.html
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=1952646
  • https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/1085947
  • https://vwma.org.au/research/home-page-archives/mystery-of-the-black-cat
  • http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=3453704
  • https://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/SearchNRetrieve/Interface/ViewImage.aspx?B=4456995
  • https://rslvirtualwarmemorial.org.au/research/home-page-archives/diary-of-a-destroyer

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