About This Unit
This is a generic listing that embraces men who were enlisted and embarked as reinforcements for the Field Artillery Brigades . On arrival in England they would have been assigned to one of a significant number of Field Artillery Brigades across the AIF.
The standard organisation of Field Artillery took on the form of the Field Artillery Brigade which were formed to support infantry divisions. In 1914 and 1915 the First and Second Division each had three brigades (initially corresponding to the Brigade numeric designation). Each Field Artillery Brigade generally comprised three Batteries of four 18 Pounder Mk 1 or II guns. With a range of about 6,500 yards (almost 6km) they fired a range of ammuntion natures including High Explosive fragmentation, Shrapnel, Smoke, Gas, Star (illumination) and Armour Piercing projectiles.
Artillery units had arguably the least intuitive structure and organisation of any of the major Corps in the AIF. This in part reflected changing priority and availability of equipment. The FAB were numbered 1-25, although 16-20 did not exist. The AIF was organised, after April 1916, into 15 infantry brigades in five divisions. There was a Field Artillery Brigade rasied for each (1-15). Later an additional five FAB were raised to provide an additional FAB for each Division. 21 FAB was attached to the 1st Division, 22 to the 2nd and so on, meaning each of the five Divisions had four FAB each. That all changed again in 1917.
Artillery largely defined the landscape and shaped the terrain of the Western Front.
Napoleon Bonaparte famously described Artillery as "the God of War" because of the effect that its fire can bring to bear on the battlefield. In WW 1 on the Western Front, artillery dominated and defined the battlefield. In concert with the weather, it turned the terrain into the pulverised devastated quagmire that is so synonomous with that period and place.
Artillery inflicted the most casualties and battle space damage and instilled the most fear among opposing forces. Its effect was both physical and psychological, with the term 'shell shock' coming into general use early in the war. Artillery required a Herculean logistic effort to keep ammunition up to the guns from manufacture to the gun line. It was also a very dangerous occupation, attracting the attention of the enemy, the general result of which was 'counter battery fire' designed to neutralise and destroy gun positions and ammunition.
At the outbreak of the War, Australian Artillery was in short supply in both quantitative and qualitative terms. The standard 'fire unit' of artillery is a Battery comprising variously four to six guns described as light medium or heavy depending on the equipment, calibre and weight of shell.
The standard field gun was the British 18 pounder (so-called because of the weight of the high explosive shell). When the AIF embarked, its artillery was light-on indeed. As it turned out the scope to use it at Gallipoli was extremely constrained anyway so it mattered less than had the AIF gone straight to Europe, where artillery was the definitive feature of the battlefield.
At ANZAC, guns were deployed singly purely because of a lack of suitable fire positions. The 18 pounders were the first into action but later an improvised heavy Battery was formed with two 6 inch (150mm) howitzers and a 4.7 inch (120mm) Naval Quick Firing gun.
On arrival in France, the artillery was reorganised with each field artillery brigade having 12 x 18 pounders and 4 x 4.5 inch howitzers. There was initially a lack of howitzers available to meet the establishment.
As the war progressed, concentration to facilitate command and control at the highest level, became a defining characteristic of the structure of artillery units (generally and somewhat confusingly called Field Artillery Brigades, (rather than the contemporary term 'regiments' ) which were aggregations of like Batteries. Specialised sub units (Batteries equipped with specialised weapons like Siege Artillery, Heavy Howitzers and Medium and Heavy Mortars) were raised and allocated across the AIF generally at Division and Corps level. The allocation of their fire support was similarly controlled.
In March 1916 a fourth battery of four 18 pounder field guns was added. At the same time a Howitzer Brigade was raised for each division with 12 x 4.5 inch howitzers each.
In January 1917, batteries were increased in size to 6 guns each in order to economise on headquarters structures and the number of Field Artillery Brigades in each division was reduced to two.
Steve Larkins Nov 2014
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